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標題左邊圖檔 History of Irrigation in Taiwan 標題右邊圖檔 PDF download (all chapters:273KB)


Part IV: Taiwan's Irrigation Situation Today

  1. A. Cropping Patterns
  2. In Taiwan, the following crop patterns were established and carried out to adapt to the local farmland production environments including climatic and hydraulic conditions, the kinds of crops to be grown, and the production techniques applicable:

    1. Double rice cropping area:
      Farms that grow and harvest rice crop twice a year.

    2. Single rice cropping area:
      1. The first rice-crop sub-area: where the irrigation water is provided for the first rice crop season in a year.
      2. The second rice-crop sub-area: where the irrigation water is provided for the second rice-crop season in a year.

    3. Rotational cropping area:
      1. Sub-areas of one rice cropping season in two years: rice crop is grown once in every two years.
      2. Sub-areas of other rotational cropping: rice crop is grown either three times in two years or twice in three years etc.

    4. Upland cropping area:
      Farms that grow secondary crops all year round.

    5. Other cropping pattern areas:
      1. Inter cropping area: short-term crops are grown between the first and the second rice growing seasons.
      2. Winter cropping area: short-term secondary crops are grown in winter seasons between the second rice- crop season's harvests and the first rice-crop season plantings in early next year.
      3. Mixed cropping area: rice crop is grown along with other crops in the same farm plots.

      The various cropping patterns commonly practiced in Taiwan are illustratively shown in Fig.4.

    Various Cropping Patterns adopted in Taiwan


  3. B. Irrigation Water
  4. According to the statistics conducted in 1999, the total area of arable land in the plains and agricultural and domestic animal-raising lands on the slope lands in Taiwan amounted to 854,205 ha, 24.01% of the total area of the island. Most of the arable lands are rice paddies and uplands, of 448,698 ha and 405,507 ha in area respectively. And there were a total of 374,451 ha serviced by the Irrigation Associations.

    With warm climate, Taiwan's cropping lands require large quantities of irrigation water; per unit demand on the time scale is rather uniform. Fig. 5 shows the water use variation with time in the Kaoping Creek Irrigation District in a typical year.

    Presently, 81.14% of irrigation water in Taiwan was diverted from rivers, 10.89% from reservoirs and various ponds, 5.42% pumped from groundwater, and 2.55% from other sources.

    Irrigation Water Changes with Lapse of Time in Kaoping Creek District


  5. C. Irrigation Institutional Aspect
  6. The Irrigation Associations in Taiwan have been generally established in accordance with local geographical conditions and economic benefits. And their official titles were given according to the major regions they are servicing, or the river/canal systems. Currently in Taiwan, the 17 Irrigation Associations have been entitled the public juridical persons as already mentioned previously.

    They are obliged to help the Government carry out the irrigation undertakings, under the supervision of the Council of Agriculture, the central-level competent authority.

    According to the General Rules Governing in Organization of Irrigation Associations, these Associations should take the following six major responsibilities:

    1. Construction, improvement, maintenance, and management of irrigation and drainage facilities.
    2. Prevention and rescue of disasters/damages to the irrigation and drainage facilities.
    3. Fund raising and foundation establishment for the needs of irrigation undertakings.
    4. Research and development of irrigation and drainage benefits.
    5. Support to relevant government policies in connection with the land, agriculture, industrial policies, and rural reconstruction.
    6. Other activities as legally designated by the competent authority.

    In order to perform their legally prescribed duties, the Irrigation Associations have typical organizational structure as schematically shown in Fig. 7. The Association Committee is responsible for supervising the performance of the chairman. And under the Chairman, there are a general manager and a chief engineer assisting him with the general and technical affairs. The association's responsibilities and activities are carried out by eight divisions and offices designated respective functions, while field activities including operation and maintenance (O&M) in the fields of the service areas and association-owned facilities, are carried out by the work stations assisted by irrigation groups, in their respective service areas.

    Irrigation Asscoiation's Organizational Structure Chart


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